Step by Step Home Wine Making
Procedure for Making Wine:
1. Sterilize all equipment using 2 tsp. Potassium meta-bisulfite per gallon of warm water to wash and sterilize carboy/fermentation vessel. Rinse with clean water twice.
2. Bring juice up to room temperature for primary fermentation. Whites - 60-70, Reds - 70-80
3. Create a yeast culture with Yeast Starter and yeast according to directions on sachet.
4. Adjust sugar and acid per recommendations. Add Yeast Nutrient, and Pectic Enzyme.
5. Add yeast culture to carboy.
6. Remove 3 quarts of juice and place in a glass one gallon jug.
7. Fill airlock half full with water, insert in rubber stopper and place in carboy and gallon jug.
8. Ferment reds for 1-2 weeks with skins. Ferment whites and reds without skins 1-4 weeks. The airlock will be bubbling away.
9. When you see a clear line of sediment and the airlock has slowed down, almost stopped, it’s time to rack your wine leaving the sediment behind.
10. Top off carboy by racking wine in the gallon jug, and store any extra in refrigerator for future topping-off of your carboy carboy.(If there is not enough wine to top off your carboy, do not worry. There is usually enough CO2 in solution to fill the airspace.)
11. Warm wine up to 70-75F and add Bacchus Malo Lactic Bacteria, let ferment until sediment layer forms.If Secondary Fermentation is not desired continue to step 12.
12. Rack off wine into a sterilized carboy
13. Add 1/4 tsp. Potassium meta-bisulfite to carboy.
14. Place airlock back on carboy.
15. Age until a clear line of sediment has settled to the bottom. (Between 1-2 months) (keep an eye on the water level in your fermentation lock to be sure it does not all evaporate)
16. Rack wine into a sterilized carboy - Add 1/4 tsp. Potassium meta-bisulfite.
17. Cold stabilize your wine by cooling the wine down to 25-30 degrees for two weeks or more. (easiest way to do this is to bury your carboy in about a foot of snow for 2-3 weeks. Mark it well with a flag [you wouldn't want to hit it with a plow blade]) You will see Potassium bi-tartrate (cream of tartar) crystals form and fall to the bottom of your carboy.
18. Rack wine while cold, leaving the crystals behind. Add and mix thoroughly potassium sorbate or sterile filter (.5 microns or less) right after racking if sweetening. (For home wine makers using filters, be aware that even filtering may not stop a refermentation, Potassium Sorbate is always reccommended)